A photo showing multiple Indonesian Air Force Tupolev Tu-16 strategic bomber variants, such as Tu-16 (Reg. 1601–1612), Tu-16KS-1 (Reg. 1615–1626), and Tu-16R (Reg. 1613–1614). (Pinterest)

This article was co-written by Djoko Bayu Murtie and Fauzi Nugraha.

An answer to one of the most commonly asked questions about anti-submarine warfare.

USS Chicago (SSN-721) at periscope depth off Malaysia. (Mate 1st Class Kevin H. Tierney)

It is a common question often asked by most people about submarine and anti-submarine warfare. Especially when this article is made, an Indonesian submarine (KRI Nanggala, 402) was declared missing off the coast of Bali and it took the authority more than 72 hours to locate the location of the submarine using multiple assets before it was being declared sunk. On the surface, detecting a submarine is just a matter of turning on the chaser ship’s sonar and waiting until it detects the submarine. In reality, it…

Contains the essential guides to help visually identify 68 variants of the T-72 main battle tank family.

A Russian Army T-72B3 obr. 2016g during a combat maneuver exercise. (Sputnik)


The T-72 is a family of Soviet-designed main battle tanks that entered production in 1971. T-72 was designed as a low-cost, reliable, workhorse tank and was supposed to supplement the more expensive T-64 and T-80 in the Soviet Army. Due to its reliability, the T-72 family saw extensive service even after the breakup of the Soviet Union and has multiple upgrades in order to keep up with the time. These multiple upgrades to the already large T-72 family caused many confusions in the…

The U.S. government and Hollywood have always been close. Washington D.C. has long been a source of attractive plots for filmmakers, and LA (Hollywood) has become a luxury provider for the political class.

Washington D.C. considers that film is an important element in spreading propaganda. This was mostly due to propaganda films have successfully led the U.S. to victory in World War I and World War II. Therefore, the U.S. Government after World War II saw the potential of soaring Hollywood cinema.

In order to maximize Hollywood’s potential, The Pentagon established an entertainment liaison office (Entertainment Liaison Office, The Pentagon…

Challenger 2 with armor upgrades to the sides of the turret, skirts, bar armor to rear. Smoke grenade launchers visible on turret front. Counter-IED ECM antennas are on the platform on the turret, and additional ECM equipment overhangs the left and right front fenders. A remote controlled weapon systems (RCWS) has also been fitted to the turret. (defenceimagery.mod.uk)

Almost every country in the world has a distinct military doctrine. The doctrine is influenced by various factors in the country itself, starting from geographic to economic factors. Apart from individual states, there is also a collective doctrine used by several countries that are members of one alliance, including countries that are members of both NATO and the Warsaw Pact. As NATO and the Warsaw Pact are the most dominant military alliances, this article will focus on both of these alliances.

Chapter 1 (Alliance Doctrine), part 1 (The Foundation of Alliance Doctrine), point 1.5 on interoperability of NATO Standard AJP-01…

How to identify Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm aircraft role from its name.

A Royal Air Force Typhoon FGR.4 Piloted by BAE test pilot taking off from RAF Fairford to perform a role demonstration. (defenceimagery.mod.uk)

If we see the name of a British military aircraft, we will often see that some alphabet and numbers follow the name of the aircraft. For example, Typhoon FGR. 4. So, what does FGR.4 mean?

The FGR.4 from the name indicates the aircraft’s role and capabilities or types of mission that it can handle. Each alphabet stands for a different role. Before we went further, let’s take a look at what each/combination of alphabets stands for.

  • A (If stands alone) = Airborne/Paratrooper Transport Aircraft
  • A…

The one time Western and Russian military looking at Israel for advancement in military technology.

German and Israeli Flag. (Jerusalem Post)

As we all know, both the Western (NATO) and the Soviets were the leading countries in world military power. They have the best indigenous-built military equipment in the world. They are so good that the rest of the world would buy military equipment from them. But even when they are the best, they still need some improvement for their technologies. That’s when they decided to look at the world’s most militarily experienced newly born country in the world: Israel.

Israel, since its founding, has been…

Known details of the classified tank.

Object 187–1 (Prototype Number 1).


Object 187 (T-72BI obr. 1992g) is a Soviet experimental main battle tank (MBT) developed between the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Object 187 is also referred to as T-72BU and T-72BM, but this is somewhat incorrect since T-72BU obr. 1992g was the original designation for the T-90 (Object 188). The other designation, T-72BM, according to the US Army Armor Center was the Soviet designation for T-72B obr. 1989g and later for the Russian T-72B2 obr. 2006g Rogatka.

Work on the tank was conducted by the Ural Design Bureau of Transport Machine-Building under a…

The analysis on how hard it actually is to sink a modern US Navy super aircraft carrier (supercarrier).

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), one of the ten Nimitz-class supercarrier ever built. (Pinterest)


According to the dictionary, an aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck (runway) and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering an aircraft. There are 43 aircraft carriers currently sailing with 14 different navies. Of 43 carriers on earth, 11 of them belong to the United States Navy and each of them can carry up to 80 jet aircraft.

The reason why the US has so many aircraft carriers is because of…

Why the Soviets eventually produced three different main battle tanks to meet the same requirements

T-72B3 Obr. 2016g (left), T-80BVM Obr. 2017g (middle), and T-90M Obr. 2020g Proryv-3 (right) in a side-by-side comparison during Russian Victory Day Parade 2020. (reddit)


As we all know, at the height of the Cold War in the mid-1980s, the Soviet Army ended up using three different frontline main battle tanks: T-64, T-72, and T-80. These three different tanks actually used to meet the same requirement: have enough armament, speed, and armor to break through the NATO defense line in Central Europe and to spearhead the advance of the combined Soviet and Warsaw Pact armies in case of war with NATO.

Other than having similar requirements, the three tanks also…

Djoko Bayu Murtie

A Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Student. An Avgeek, History and Military Enthusiast, Defense Analyst, and Geopolitics Observer.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store